Category Archives: Racism


The cowardly lion in the Wizard of Oz held the wrong notion, that fear negated courage. The wizard corrects him, “There is no living thing that does not fear when it faces danger. The true courage is in facing the danger when you are afraid.” Aristotle noted that the vice of a shortage of courage is cowardice, and the vice of an excess of courage is recklessness. Appropriate fear orients a person to the reality of risk. Increased risk should amplify fear. Acting in the face of that fear constitutes courage. Continue reading

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Growing up in a small Midwest town in the ‘60s, I was blissfully oblivious to the severe racial injustice and inequality that was shredding the social order. I observed no segregation in my hometown. I did not sense the slightest … Continue reading

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